Thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland which is a located just below the adam’s apple around the trachea or windpipe.
Isthmus is thin tissue which joins the thyroid lobes on each side. Thyroid actually uses iodine to produce various vital hormones, thyroxine or T4 is a crucial hormone produced by the thyroid gland.
After the delivery via the body’s bloodstream T4 is converted into triiodothyronine (T3) which is one of the most active hormone.
All the functions of the thyroid gland are systematically regulated by the feedback mechanism operated by our brain.
When the thyroid levels are low the brain’s hypothalamus produces a hormone known as thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) that causes the pituitary to gland to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) .
TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release more of T4 thus completing the last element of the feedback system.
Hypothyroidism also known as “Underactive thyroid” is a condition where your thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormones which is necessary to regulate the feedback system of the body.
One of the major cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which is a condition where our immune system turns against our body’s thyroid gland and tissues this can occur because of some ultraviolet radiation exposure, viral infection or through genes,
However there is not much scientific evidence on the cause of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and the exact cause of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is still under the hood even after an extensive amount of research in the medical sector.
Top thyroid expert Mary Shomon says “Every woman between the age of 18-30 years must ensure an yearly thyroid checkup even if they have no history of thyroid disorders in the family”
Many neck cancer patients are given radiation therapy to get rid of the tumour.
But radiation therapy near the neck area may damage the cells in the thyroid gland this can make it difficult for our body to produce the thyroid hormones.
It has been observed that the overdose of various medicines which are prescribed to treat heart diseases may affect your thyroid gland in the long term this includes lithium and interleukin-2.
This is one of the most major symptom of hypothyroidism as iodine is mainly responsible for the production of thyroid hormones in your body deficiency of iodine is the most common reason for hypothyroidism.
As the thyroid gland uses iodine to produce the T4 thyroid hormone, lack of T4 means inadequate production of the thyroid hormone in your body.
Hyperthyroidism is the exact opposite of hypothyroidism as under hyperthyroidism the thyroid gland starts producing too much of thyroid hormones causing a disruption in the hypothalamus feedback mechanism.
Sometimes a lump or two in the thyroid nodule starts growing rapidly which leads to the secretion of excessive thyroid hormones responsible for various complications in our body.
If low amount of iodine leads to inadequate production of the T4 hormones, high amount of iodine obviously leads to the production of more of the T4 hormone which again disrupts the feedback mechanism of the body.
It has been observed that certain medicines & dietary supplements which contain significantly high amount of tetraiodothyronine can be the reason for high TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) levels.
TSH levels during Pregnancy